Tourism Information of Tehran

Razavi Khorasan Province is a province located in northeastern Iran . Mashhad is the centre and capital of the province . Other cities and townships are Quchan , Dargaz , Chenaran , Sarakhs , Fariman , Torbat-e Heydarieh , Torbat-e Jam , Taybad , Khaf , Roshtkhar , Kashmar , Bardaskan , Nishapur , Sabzevar , Gonabad , Kalat , Khalilabad and Mahvelat . Razavi Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan Province in 2004 . In 2014 it was placed in Region 5 with Mashhad as the location of the region's secretariat .

Greater Khorasan has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties and governments in its territory throughout history . Various tribes of the Arabs , Turks , Kurds , Turkemen and Mongols brought changes to the region time and time again .

Ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran ("Iran-Shahr") into eight segments of which the most flourishing and largest was the territory of Greater Khorasan . Esfarayen , among other cities of the province , was one of the focal points for residence of the Aryan tribes after entering Iran .

The Parthian empire was based near Merv in Khorasan for many years . During the Sassanid dynasty the province was governed by a Spahbod (Lieutenant General) called "Padgoosban" and four margraves , each commander of one of the four parts of the province .

Khorasan was divided into four parts during the Muslim conquest of Persia , each section being named after the four largest cities , Nishapur , Merv , Heart , and Balkh .

In the year 651 , the army of Islamic Arabs invaded Khorasan . The territory remained in the hands of the Abbasid clan until 820 , followed by the rule of the Iranian Taherid clan in the year 896 and the Samanid dynasty in 900 .

Mahmud of Ghazni conquered Khorasan in 994 and in the year 1037 Tuğrul .

In 1507 , Khorasan was occupied by Uzbek tribes after the death of the Turkic king Nader Shah . In 1747 , it was occupied by the Afghan Durrani Empire centered in Qandahar .

During the Qajar period , Britain supported the Afghans to protect their East India Company . Herat was thus separated from Persia , and Nasser-al-Din Shah was unable to defeat the British to take back Heart . Finally , the Paris Treaty was concluded in 1903 and Iran was compelled not to challenge the British for Herat and other parts of what is today Afghanistan .

Finally Khorasan was divided into two parts : the eastern part , which was the most densely populated region came under British occupation , and the other western section remained part of Iran .

Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided into three provinces on September 29 , 2004 . The provinces approved by the parliament of Iran (on May 18 , 2004) and the Council of Guardians (on May 29 , 2004) were Razavi Khorasan , North Khorasan , and South Khorasan .

 

Archaeological sites

Among the archeological sites discovered in this province :

Kohandezh hills : Excavations conducted by an American team between 1935 and 1940 in Nishapur discovered museum-worthy objects , which were shared with the government of the Shah . The Metropolitan Museum of Art's publications document its own Nishapur ceramics from those excavations . For half a century after 1945 the site of Nishapur was ransacked to feed the international market demand for early Islamic works of art . Nowadays , the Kohandezh hills reveal the remains from those excavations .

Shadiyakh : Shadiyakh was an important palace in old Nishapur up to the 7th century , and became more important and populated after that . The palace was completely ruined in the 13th century . It was the home of notables such as Farid al-Din Attar , whose tomb is found in Shadiyakh .

 

Khorasan today

The major ethnic group in this region are Persians , there are other sizeable communities such as Kurds , Khorasani Turks and Turkmens . There is also an Afghan community in the province due to the influx of Afghan refugees coming from Afghanistan in recent years .

 

Attractions

This province envelopes many historical and natural attractions , such as mineral water springs , small lakes , recreational areas , caves and protected regions , and various hiking areas .

Besides these , Khorasan encompasses numerous religious buildings and places of pilgrimage , including the shrine of Imam Reza , Goharshad mosque and many other mausoleums and Imamzadehs which attract visitors to this province .

The Cultural Heritage of Iran lists 1179 sites of historical and cultural significance in all three provinces of Khorasan .

Some of the popular attractions of Razavi Khorasan are :

·         Tus , where Ferdowsi , the Persian language's most important poet , is buried

·         Nishapur , where Farid al-Din Attar , Omar Khayyám , and Kamal-ol-molk are buried

·         Goharshad mosque and the vast shrine-complex of Imam Reza that forms the heart of Mashhad

·         Khaneh Khorshid

·         Shandiz and Torghabeh

·         Tomb of Nadir Shah Afshar in central Mashhad

·         Akhangan (Akhanjan) tower , north of Tus

·         Haruniyeh dome in Tus , where the famous mystic Imam Mohammad Ghazali is buried

·         Tus citadel

·         Bazangan lake , in Sarakhs district

·         Kooh Sangi , a notable hill in Mashhad

·         Akhlamad

·         Band-e-Golestan (Golestan dam)

·         Jaghargh

·         Zoshk , a country village west of Mashhad

·         Kang , a scenic stepped village

·         Noghondar

·         Kardeh Dam

·         Vakilabad and Mellat parks in Mashhad

·         Zari , Hendelabad , Mozdooran , Moghan and Kardeh caves

·         Robat Sharaf (a relatively grand caravanserai ruin in Sarakhs district)

·         Tomb of Khajeh Abasalt , Khajeh Morad , Ravi and mausoleum of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi

·         Yahya and Khajeh Rabi mausoleum at the northern edge of Mashhad city

·         Sabz (green) dome in a roundabout in Mashhad

Mausoleum of Attar Neyshaburi

Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibr?hīm , better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn and Attar of Nishapur , was the great poet and Gnostic of Iran .
The tomb of this famous poet is located 6 km , west of Nishapur , near Imamzadeh Mahrooq and the tomb of Omar Khayyam . This structure is octagonal in shape with a tile worked onion shaped dome .
It has 4 entrances , the northern one is the main entrance . This historical structure has been tastefully adorned with colored (green , yellow and blue) tiles and carvings . The interior site is covered by plaster and has four seats .The Mausoleum is located in a garden covering an area of about 119 sq. m . The grave of the well known painter Kamal-ol-molk is also situated in a part of this garden .

Imam Reza shrine

The Imam Reza Shrine in Mashhad , Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza , the eighth Imam of Twelver Shiites . It is the largest mosque in the world by dimension and the second largest by capacity . Also contained within the complex are the Goharshad Mosque , a museum , a library , four seminaries , a cemetery , the Razavi University of Islamic Sciences , a dining hall for pilgrims , vast prayer halls , and other buildings .
The complex is one of the tourism centers in Iran . The shrine itself covers an area of 267,079m2 while the seven courtyards which surround it cover an area of 331,578m2 - totaling 598,657 m2 (6,443,890 sq ft) .
Every year the ceremony of Dust Clearing is celebrated in the Imam Reza shrine .

Tandooreh National Park

Tandooreh is a national park located in the north east of Iran , near the city of Dargaz and the Turkmenistan border .

Tomb of Ferdowsi

Tomb of Ferdowsi or mausoleum of Ferdowsi is a tomb complex composed of a white marble base , and a decorative edifice erected in honor of this Persian poet located in Tus , Iran , in Razavi Khorasan province . It was built in the early 1930s , under the Reza Shah , and uses mainly elements of Achaemenid architecture . The construction of the mausoleum as well as its aesthetic design is a reflection of the cultural , and geo-political status of Iran at the time . This article delves into the architecture of the tomb and its influences .

Shadiyakh

Shadiyakh or Shadyakh was one of the main Palaces , Gardens and Great Neighborhoods of old Nishapur that was established by Abdullah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani in the 9th century AD , becoming more important and populated after that . Some notable people like Attar lived there . Attar's tomb is now in that area . This palace was perhaps completely ruined in 13th century AD .
Now Shadyakh Is a national Iranian monument , with a registration number of 10910 .
Excavations began in 2000 there and continued for around 2 years : buildings (possibly a palace) , skeleton , equipments and other items were found there .
 

 

Al-Ghazali

Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghaz?lī (1058-1111) , known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). He was a Muslim theologian, philosopher, and mystic of Persian origin Al-Ghazali remains one of the most celebrated scholars in the history of Islamic thought
Al-Ghazali contributed significantly to the development of a systematic view of Sufism and its integration and acceptance in mainstream Islam. He was a scholar of orthodox Islam, belonging to the Shafi'i school of legal thought of Sunnite Islam and to the Asharite school of theology . Imam Ghazali received many titles: Sharaful A'emma, Zainud din, Hujjatul Islam, meaning Proof of Islam
Al-Ghazali remains one of the most celebrated scholars in the history of Islamic thought. He lectured at the Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad (the highest ranked academy of the golden era of Islamic civilization) between 1091 and 1096. He was the scholar par excellence in the Islamic world. He had literally hundreds of scholars attending his lectures at the Nizamiyyah. His audience included scholars from other schools of jurisprudence. This position won him prestige, wealth and respect that even princes and viziers could not match
After some years he distributed his wealth and left Baghdad to begin a spiritual journey that lasted over a decade. He went to Damascus, Jerusalem, Hebron, Madinah, Mecca and back to Baghdad where he stopped briefly. He then left for Tus to spend the next several years in seclusion. He ended his seclusion for a short lecturing period at the Nizamiyyah of Nishapur in 1106. Later he returned to Tus where he remained until his death in December, 1111
He is also viewed as the key member of the influential Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy and the most important refuter of Mutazilites. However, he chose a slightly different position in compare with Asharites; his beliefs and thoughts differ, in some aspects, from the orthodox Asharite school. His 11th century book titled "The Incoherence of the Philosophers" marks a major turn in Islamic epistemology, as Ghazali effectively discovered philosophical skepticism that would not be commonly seen in the West until René Descartes, George Berkeley and David Hume. The encounter with skepticism led Ghazali to embrace a form of theological occasionalism, or the belief that all causal events and interactions are not the product of material conjunctions but rather the immediate and present will of God
The Incoherence also marked a turning point in Islamic philosophy in its vehement rejections of Aristotle and Plato. The book took aim at the falasifa, a loosely defined group of Islamic philosophers from the 8th through the 11th centuries (most notable among them Avicenna and Al-Farabi) who drew intellectually upon the Ancient Greeks. Ghazali bitterly denounced Aristotle, Socrates and other Greek writers as non-believers and labelled those who employed their methods and ideas as corrupters of the Islamic faith
In the next century, Averroes drafted a lengthy rebuttal of Ghazali's Incoherence entitled the Incoherence of the Incoherence; however, the epistemological course of Islamic thought had already been set
Ghazali's influence has been compared to the works of St. Thomas Aquinas in Christian theology (he has been called the "Thomas Aquinas of Islam" by some), but the two differed greatly in methods and beliefs. Whereas Ghazali rejected non-Islamic philosophers such as Aristotle and saw it fit to discard their teachings on the basis of their "unbelief," Aquinas embraced them and incorporated ancient Greek and Latin thought into his own philosophical writings. It is also believed that René Descartes' ideas from his book called "Discourse on Methods" were influenced by Al-ghazali and very much similar to Al-ghazali's work. Thus, some scholars today believe that Descartes was being dishonest in terms of writing the "Discourse on Methods" without giving any academic reference to Al-ghazali's work in his book
Al-ghazali wrote two of his works in Persian : Kimyayé Sa'?dat (The Alchemy of Happiness) and Nasihatul Mulook Counseling Kings

Ali al-Rida

Imam 'Ali al-Rida Translit: Im?m 'Alī ibn-Mūs? ar-Riđ?  January 1, 766 - May 26, 818 was the eighth Shīa Im?m. His given name was 'Alī ibn-Mūs? ibn-Ja'far. In Persian, he is frequently known as Emam Reza
'Alī ar-Riđ? was born in Medina to the seventh Shīa Im?m, Mūs? ibn-Ja'far ibn-Muħammad al-K?đim (known in Persian as Emam Musa Kazem), and Ummu l-Banīn Najm?. He was born one month after the death of his grandfather, Ja'far as-S?diq. Like his father and grandfather, his education came at the hands of his father
His father died in 799, when Alī was 35, and he was given the responsibility of the Imamate. Alī was not looked upon favorably by H?rūn Rashīd, and the people of Medina were disallowed from visiting Alī and learning from him. Harun attempted to kill him but was unsuccessful
After the death of H?rūn Rashīd, his two sons began fighting for control of the Abb?sid empire. One son, Al-Amin, had an Arab mother and thus had the support of Arabs, while his half-brother Al-Ma'mun had a Persian mother and the support of Persia. Al-Ma'mun believed that Persia was sympathetic to the Hashemites and asked for Alī to meet him in Persia. Alī ar-Riđ? left his only son, Muħammad at-Taqī, and his wife and set out for Merv
After defeating his brother, al-Ma'mun named Alī ar-Riđ? his successor. He hoped to win Shīa support through this move, but the passage of caliphate would occur only if Alī outlived al-Ma'mun (as with all promises of succession). Al-Ma'mun even changed the black Abb?sid flags to green, the traditional color of the house of Alī ibn Abī-T?lib, the first Shīa imam

Goharshad Mosque

Goharshad Mosque is a famous mosque in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran
It was built by the orders of Goharshad, the wife of Shah Rukh of the Timurid Dynasty in 1418 CE and by the architect Ghavameddin Shirazi
The mosque underwent some renovations during the Safavid and Qajar era. It has 4 iwans and a courtyard measuring 50 X 55 meters, as well as several Shabestans
The double layered dome of the mosque was severely damaged in 1911 in bombings by Russian troops
The Passage below is cited directly from Arthur Upham Pope; in "Persian Architecture, the Triumph of form & colour".,New York, 1965
"The first & greatest surviving, Persian monument of the fifteenth (15th) Century is the beautiful mosque of GoharShad 1418 CE now abutting the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad. Its portals continue the Samarkand style of arch within arch, enriched by a succession of bevels and reveals that give it depth and power. The thick, tower like minarets, merging with the outer corners of the portal screen, extend the ground and, together with the high foundation revetment of marble, give the ensemble the impression of solidity necessary to support its exuberant color. The entire court facade is faced with enamel brick and mosaic faience of the finest quality. The full sacle of colors includes a dominant cobalt blue and turquoise, white, a transparent green, yellow, saffron, aubergine and mirror black-all tones fluctuating through several shades. The patterns, lucid and vigorous, are artfully adapted to their decorative role, whether for eye level panels, or dome ornament meant to be effective at a thousand feet. Monotony, difficult to avoid in such a large area, and distracting intricacy that might compete with the essential architectural forms are both forestalled. This is accomplished by the energy of the faience floral patterns and brick geometrical schemes; by the emphatic rhythm of the arcades, open galleries and deep recesses; and especially by the striking contrast of the ivans. The Sanctuary ivan is in pure white, while in the other three ivans the ground color of the vault is pale red, carrying large white-outlined kufic inscriptions of light turquoise that appear green against the reddish ground. The whole decor is interlaced with an unusual amount of white, which adds clarity and excitement to the total effect
"It needs no acquaintance with other styles to acclaim this court, among the buildings now existing, as the most beautiful example of color in architecture ever devised." Robert Byron
The Architect was Ghavameddin Shirazi, who is responsible for so many of Shah Rukh's great buildings. Although most of the great Timurid monuments were built in the North of the empire, the architectural and decorative genius came from Shiraz and Isfahan

Kamal-ol-molk

Kamal-ol-Molk, Mohammad Ghaffari (also Kamal-al-Molk) was a famous Iranian painter
Born in 1847 in Kashan, Iran, he went to Tehran and studied at Dar-ol-Fonoon. His progress was so rapid that he became the royal painter of King Nasereddin Shah at the age of 18
In 1896 the King sent him to Europe for continuation of his studies at the Louvre, Florence, and Versailles. After returning to Iran in 1898, as a royal painter for Nasereddin Shah he faced constant envy and jealousy from certain members of the royal court and eventually ended up fleeing to Kerbala, Iraq under the pretext of going for pilgrimage. There, he created some of his famous works such as "falgeer e Baghdadi" ("the fortune teller of Baghdad"), "zargar e baghdadi va shagerdash" ("The Baghdadi goldsmith and his pupil"), "meidan e Karbala" ("The Kerbala square"), and "Arab e Khofteh" the sleeping Arab
He died in 1939 and was buried in Nishapur next to the medieval giant of Sufism Attar Neyshaburi
Two-hundred of his paintings are said to still remain. His life and works is portrayed by director Ali Hatami in his movie, Kamalolmolk

Nader Shah

N?der Sh?h Afshar also known as Nader Qoli Beg , Tahmasp-Qoli Khan,) October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747 ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia[1] or the Second Alexander[2]. He created a great Iranian Empire that encompassed Iran, northern India, and parts of Central Asia. Nader Shah won battles against the Afghans, Ottomans, and Mughals. Nader Shah's victories made him briefly the Middle East's most powerful sovereign, but his empire quickly disintegrated after he was assassinated in 1747. Nader Shah was probably the last great Asian military conqueror. Nader is considered to be Iran's most gifted military commander and is credited for restoring Iranian power as an eminence between the Ottomans and the Mughals
Nader Shah was assassinated on 19 June 1747, at Fathabad in Khorasan, where he was preparing to punish some rebellious Kurds. The assassination was probably planned by his son Reza Qoli Mirza. Nader was surprised in his sleep by Salah Bey, captain of the guards, and killed with a sword. Nader was able to kill two of the assassins
After his death, he was succeeded by his nephew Ali Qoli, who renamed himself Adil Shah ("righteous king") Adil Shah was deposed within a year. During the struggle between Adil Shah, his brother Ibrahim Khan and Nader's grandson Shah Rukh almost all provincial governors declared independence, established their own states, and the entire Empire of Nader Shah fell into anarchy. Finally, Karim Khan founded the Zand dynasty and became ruler of Iran by 1760, while Ahmad Shah Durrani had already proclaimed independence in the east, marking the foundation of modern Afghanistan
In 1768, Christian VII of Denmark commissioned Sir William Jones to translate a Persian language biography of Nader Shah into French. It was published in 1770 as Histoire de Nadir Chah, and subsequently translated into English, becoming the vehicle by which Nader Shah became known to the reading public in the West